5 Fast Obese Weight Loss Tips to Lose Your Weight

These obese weight loss tips will help you to lose your weight in a best way for a fast result. These 5 weight loss tips also may help you to achieve your dream to slim down to fit into your gown nicely.

Obese weight loss tips 1: Control your diets
When talking about controlling your diet it sounds like it is very difficult to be achieve. But if you set one vision and try to achieve it you are in the first step to lose your weight. You need to reduced intake of saturated fat (the bad fat) and vice versa for unsaturated fat. Saturated fat is one of the contributing factors that lead to high cholesterol and cardiovascular disease such as stroke and heart attack. Reducing bad fat not only reduced body weight but reduced the risk of cardiovascular disease. Try to drink a plenty of water (8 glass of plain water per day). Drinks a lot of water may enhanced metabolism of fat in the body. Take more high fiber containing meal such as vegetables, fruit, bean and grain product. High fiber containing meal not even helpful in weight management but also helpful in gastrointestinal healthcare. Fiber increase the function of out gastrointestinal tract in may reduce the chance to get constipation.

Obese weight loss tips 2: Exercise may enhanced the result
Diet control without any exercise is sometime may not be very helpful to burn your fat. Exercises eg jogging, for at least 30 minutes and 3 times per week may produce a better result. Beside that exercise may enhanced health status and maintains cardiovascular system health. Other type of exercise such as weightlifting, walking and cycling all may be helpful for you. Just take at least 30 minutes per sessions for 3 session per week. In order to get a better exercise plan, you may consult someone expert in exercise field. Beside may help in weight management, exercise may reduce the risk of some disease such as heart problems, stroke and diabetes. Moreover its can increase brain ability to think and make your mind be fresh.

Obese weight loss tips 3: Take herbal or dietary supplement
Nowadays there are abundant of dietary supplement for weight loss available in the internet market. Most famous weight loss supplement like acai berry, lipo 6, trimspa, Soy Protein, Gymnema Sylvestre, Garcinia Cambogia Extract, Aloe Plant extract, Chitosan and Pure Ascorbic Acid and others product are available with cheap price in the market. Before selecting the suitable dietary supplements, make some review of the previous user to get the information about the products. To get some information about best herbal or dietary supplement now easier with internet technology. Just type the word “best herbal and dietary supplement” and search on Google. Make some reading get the information about the indication, composition, side effects, effectiveness, and if possible read on the comment by previous user to know the validity of the product.

Obese weight los tips 4: Don’t put yourself in stress
Stress is a contributing factor that leads to increased body fat. Sometimes it’s very difficult to managed stress. However by knowing stress management tips, it does can be done. Some tips on stress management like avoid junk food, take only a healthy meal, having a good exercise program and contribute in a social activity. Stress management can be achieved with moral support from your parents and family members. Ask them to give some moral support to managed stress. Tell them about your target to lose body weight.

Obese weight loss tips 5: Stay motivated
One of the key of weight loss success is to stay motivated it is because most common obstacles that knock people off their weight loss program is loss of motivation. Put in your mind the goal of your action is to lose your fat. To stay motivated is very difficult especially when your work not even working. However, you may maintain motivation by asking for a moral support especially form your parents. Informed your parents, husband, friend or family members about your goal and ask for their opinion, suggestion and moral support in order to achieved your goal.

How To Do Yoga and Weightlifting Supersets

For some yogis, this post may offend, or at least seem like a joke of a workout.

However, I assure you that doing superset yoga and weightlifting workouts is no joke. It’s actually very effective and saves a great deal of time in the gym (or working out at home).

It’s not often you see people who lift weights stretching between sets or after a weight lifting workout. You might see the odd stretching of the chest muscle, but that’s about. During my pre-yoga weight lifting days, that’s about all I would do. I could push some serious weight, but was about as flexible as a 2 X 4 chunk of wood.

I discovered yoga by chance in the bookstore. I stumbled upon Beryl Birch’s “Power Yoga” book. I was interested because the yoga routine was extremely physical. I did Power Yoga for a number of years while weight lifting (sometimes I’d take a break from weight lifting).

Since my Power Yoga discovery, I’ve been a big believer in the power OF yoga, regardless what type of workout is your focus. Whether you’re a marathon runner, tennis player, body builder, football tight end, yoga can help improve performance. What does yoga do for me?

Yoga helps me focus and dramatically improved my flexibility. I’m far more flexible at age 37 than I was when I was 18.

The trouble with a lot of yoga routines is…

They take way too long. Pick up any yoga book and the routines call for 30 to 60 minutes straight. I don’t mind doing yoga for 30 to 60 minutes once or twice a week, but it’s not going to happen on a weight training day.

My solution is to superset yoga with my weight lifting routines. How do I superset yoga with my lifting workouts?

It’s simple. In between sets of weights, I do a yoga pose (or two poses). Assuming I do 15 sets of weight lifting, I’ll get about 15 minutes of yoga/stretching done over the course of my weight routine. Often that’s more than enough stretching for me. Sometimes I’ll do another 10 minutes post-weights.

Sometimes I’ll do one set of weight lifting followed by a minute of yoga. Other times I’ll do two sets of weight lifting (usually a duo superset) followed by 30 to 45 seconds of a yoga pose (or two).

Planning Out Your Yoga Supersets

The key is to fit in all the major stretches through the course of a weight lifting/yoga superset routine. The major yoga moves are:

Forward bend Backward bend Inversion Twist Balance pose Standing

There’s also core, but I reserve those moves for my abdominal workouts. Examples of my weight lifting / yoga workout supersets

Once you understand the basics and get a few yoga poses under your belt, there’s pretty much an unlimited number of combinations. The following examples are for illustrative purposes only.

Example Yoga / Weight Lifting Superset

The first example is a duo superset – one set of weights followed by a mini-yoga session. The weights session is chest and back.

Exercise 1: Bench Press. Hold each yoga pose for 1 minute.

BP set 1 /Standing forward bend BP set 2 / Downward facing dog BP set 3 / Upward facing dog

Exercise 2: Incline Press

IP set 1 / Static lunch (Warrior) – do each leg for 30 seconds each IP set 2 / Upward facing dog IP set 3 / Downward facing dog

Exercise 3: Lat Pulldowns

LP set 1 / Seated forward bend with legs in a V LP set 2 / Seated twist (each side for 30 seconds) LP set 3 / Straight-leg forward bend

Exercise 4: Seated Row

SR set 1 / Cobra SR set 2 / Shoulder stand SR set 3 / Plow

End the workout with a few more winding down yoga poses such as:

Fish Lying down twists (right leg across body to the side, then do left leg across body to the right side) Baby pose Savasana

TOTAL WORKOUT TIME: 28 MINUTES

A few notes about the above yoga/weight lifting superset routine:

If you prefer doing 9 exercises (or more) per muscle, it’s no problem. Just add more yoga poses or do some poses twice.

I find doing yoga sun salutations is a fantastic warm up routine for weight lifting sessions. Therefore, you could do 3 to 6 sun salutations to kick off the above yoga / lifting superset workout.

Where Can You Learn About Yoga Poses?

The internet is loaded with yoga websites. If you’re new to yoga, start with the basic poses. All the poses I set out above are basic yoga poses suitable for beginners.

Yoga Journal is a fantastic resource for yoga poses.

What Are the Benefits of Doing Yoga and Weight Lifting Supersets?

Speed up the time you spend working out (kill 2 birds with 1 stone). Relieve boredom – I don’t like sitting on a bench between sets. Improve flexibility which is fantastic and arguably critical for any level of fitness. It’s actually an excellent way to rest between weight sets.

What About Getting Into the Yoga Zone – Does This Happen With Yoga/weight Lifting Supersets?

Yes and no. I get into weight lifting zones. I find it exhilarating and relaxing… much like what yoga delivers. I’ve always loved weight lifting. Therefore, interrupting yoga poses with weight lifting sets doesn’t have any adverse effect on the effectiveness of yoga. Instead, I gain flexibility, rest and fast workouts.

Is Weight Lifting Bad for Yoga?

I hate it when I read that people serious about yoga shouldn’t weight lift. It’s ridiculous. I admit that it may hamper flexibility a little, but not much (I find weight lifting restricts my shoulder flexibility the most). Resistance training is excellent for you… and not just for building muscles. Resistance training is good for bones, lungs and strength. It’s not just for meatheads.

Does Supersetting Weights and Yoga Result in Mediocre Workouts of Both?

Absolutely not. I find the two complement one another beautifully. With 1 minute of stretching between sets, I can get into long and effective yoga stretches while resting my muscles.

Moreover, when you lift weights, you’re going to take rests… you might as well make good use of that time.

If you’re like me and plan on saving your stretching to after your weight routine, you won’t stretch very much. But, when I incorporate stretching into my weight routine, I get 10 to 15 excellent stretches that covers my entire body and all the main yoga moves.

Doesn’t It Look Weird Doing a Downward Dog Next to the Bench Press?

Maybe 10 or 15 years ago you might get an odd look doing a downward dog or tree pose next to the bench press. But do you really care? These days there are all kinds of new workout styles that incorporate yoga, balance moves, body-weight moves, etc. I don’t think any type of move looks weird in a gym anymore.

Which brings me to the next point… where should you do your stretches? I do mine wherever I am. The gym I go to is huge. I don’t want to waste time walking to a stretching zone.

However, if the weight lifting area is confined, you might have to go to a dedicated stretching area in between sets. Give it a try

If you’ve been meaning to establish a yoga routine or want to get more flexible, and you weight lift regularly, try doing yoga supersets with your weight lifting exercises.

Acne Diet Link Exposed: Is There an Acne Cure Diet that Works?

Acne diet and the money factor: You can’t sell a healthy diet

Ask any medical doctor if there is a connection between diet and acne and almost all of them will claim there is none. Quoting from the Journal of the American Medical Association: “Diet plays no role in acne treatment in most patients…even large amounts of certain foods have not clinically exacerbated acne”.

With years of medical education and clinical experience behind these claims, how can we the simple folks who suffer from acne challenge these statements and think otherwise? The answer is: doubt. Doubt, if its stays in the borders of reason, can open many doors otherwise will stay forever shut. Believe it or not, doubt can change reality. Doubt can cure your acne and doubt can even save your life.

Fact is, countless of acne sufferers have reported that their acne seemed to get worse when they consumed certain foods and saw dramatic positive change over their acne condition when they eliminated the same foods from their diet and when certain foods with specific nutritional value were incorporated into their diet.

So why do dermatologists so stubbornly insist that diet does not cause acne? The answer: you can’t make a profit promoting a healthy diet. At least not as much money as you could make by selling drugs and over the counters. There is a huge pressure upon doctors coming from the drug and pharmaceutical companies to prescribe expensive medications and lotions that create dependency. The truth is, that your doctor is in a way, a hostage by the trillion dollar drug companies. Did you know that the drug companies, who have no interest in producing something that they cannot control financially, sponsor most medical schools?

The right diet, although not a solution by itself, can, in many cases, dramatically reduce inflammation and even completely clear one’s acne (if you’re one of the lucky ones who’s acne is triggered by allergic response to food). Promoting a clear skin diet simply means less profits for the drug and pharmaceutical companies.

The truth is that conventional medications will never cure your acne, simply because they are pre-designed NOT to fix the internal cause of acne. They are pre-designed to deal with the external symptoms of a disease as they create more and more dependency and more dependency means making more money all at our expense and ignorance.

The Theory That Diet Doesn’t Cause Acne Is A Myth

The dogmatic theory that diet does not cause acne and that acne is merely an incurable genetic disorder was based upon two dated researches published in 1969 and 1971 that were aimed at studying the connection between diet and acne.

These studies were the foundation of the ‘acne symptoms treatment strategy’, meaning, because acne is a genetic disease that cannot be prevented, the only way to deal with acne would be to tackle its symptoms (bacteria, inflammation, puss, redness, greasiness), by applying creams, antibiotics, taking prescription drugs and over the counters.

Surprisingly enough, years after the above studies were published, clinical trials and in depth researches experimenting the acne diet link have found that the studies from 1969 and 1971 had came to the wrong conclusions and were in fact seriously flawed.

Recent studies have clearly found a significant connection between diet and acne. It appears that the wrong diet is now thought to be one of the leading acne contributing factors that can negatively affect hormonal regulation and the natural process of toxic elimination, which can seriously aggravate one’s existing acne.

Diet Shapes Who You Are (Including Your Acne)

In the same way that crashing waves shape beach cliffs and just like the wind shapes the canyon walls, slowly and methodically over time, so does eating shapes and effects our physic, our internal system, our physical and mental being, from the organ down to the cellular level.

The idea that an object foreign to our body that is inserted by the food that we eat, has no effect on us, or has no impact on chronic conditions such as acne is absurd. Diet is the primary thing that affects and shapes who we are.

Diet has cumulative effect on our bodies, and that includes our skin condition and acne, which is a manifestation of a chronic internal problem slowly shaped and built by the wrong daily dietary choices over the years.

Acne Diet and The Kitavan Islanders

While in the U.S, more than 80% of teenagers between 16 and 18 have acne and more than 17 million Americans suffer from some form of acne, there is an interesting evidence that native people that live and eat in traditional ways, have significantly lower to no occurrences of acne.

In 2002, Dr. Cordain and his colleagues published a landmark study that examined 300 people living in the Kitavan Islands off the coast of Papua New Guinea that showed that none of the islanders had even one blemish on his or her face. Similar to the Kitavans, no case of acne had been observed when the same experiment had been conducted upon the South American Indians called the Ache, living in a remote jungle in eastern Paraguay.

The natives of Kitavan and the South American Indians had no access to the latest over the counters, topical creams or conventional acne medications and they had no dermatologist to consult with. The only vast difference between them and American or European citizens is their diet.

Acne Diet and Sugar: The Sweet Poison

Aside from the fact that sugar is a 100% pure chemical with zero nutritional value, recent studies have clearly shown a connection between the consumption of sugar and the aggravation of acne.

When you consume any form of refined carbohydrates (white sugar, white flour, white rice) here’s what happens: right after you insert that ‘sweet poison’ into your body, it rapidly spikes up your blood sugar levels. Your body needs to bring those levels down so it secrets a surge of insulin, other male hormones and an insulin-like growth factor called IGF-1. The excretion of these hormones overwhelms your liver and your internal system in general. The excess of male hormones encourages the skin to excrete large amounts of sebum oil: The greasy substance that encourages the p.acne bacteria to grow, resulting in the aggravation of your acne.

Acne Diet and Dairy Products: Got Milk? Got Acne

If you thought sugar can aggravate your acne, here’s another major nutritional player in the formation of acne: behold the miracles of milk. Milk (all dairy products included) is the most harmful, mucus forming, allergenic and acne aggravating food you can find. Surprised? I thought so. After years of constant brainwashing by the media, who can blame us for thinking milk is good for strong bones and healthy teeth? The truth is: every sip of milk contains 59 different raging hormones, (which trigger the hyper-production of sebum oil resulting in more acne), saturated animal fat, steroid hormones, dead white blood cells, and cow pus in abundance!

Did you know that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) allows 750 million pus cells in every liter of milk (about two pounds) produced in America? Think about it, the next time you pop a pimple.

Scientific studies already point the finger at milk as one of the worst acne aggravating foods: “As pointed out by Dr. Jerome Fisher, ‘About 80 percent of cows that are giving milk are pregnant and are throwing off hormones continuously.’ Progesterone breaks down into androgens, which have been implicated as a factor in the development of acne…Dr. Fisher observed that his teenage acne patients improved as soon as the milk drinking stopped.”

If there’s one element you should remove from your diet in the quest for clear skin make it this one. Not only will you see an immediate improvement over your acne, you’ll feel a huge weight has been lifted from your body. If you worry about calcium intake, don’t! Milk being acidic forming food creates a leeching effect where calcium is taken from your bones to balance the acidity. Milk actually deprives your body from its calcium resources. Green leafy vegetables, nuts and seeds are not only excellent sources of calcium they also have the powers to help you fight your acne symptoms.

Diet is only ONE of the factors that cause acne

Dairy products and sugar are not the only acne aggravating foods. The two above cannot sum up the list of western made acne triggering foods. There are several other foods you should clearly stay away from if you ever wish to clear your acne. The good new is that there are tons of other foods such as essential fatty acids that are not only excellent for your skin, they can actually help you clear your acne, by re-balancing your body and promoting to an acne-free environment.

The right nutrition plays an important part in the complex process of acne formation. When doctors claim there is no link between diet and acne because certain individuals can eat specific foods and get acne while others eat the same foods and don’t, these doctors have failed to realize that there are several factors involved in the formation and aggravation of acne and diet is only ONE of them.

The Final Verdict On The Acne Diet Connection:
How To Finally Overcome Your Acne Challenge

Acne is a complex condition that is triggered by several underlying factors. The only way to neutralize your acne condition is to tackle all these acne-contributing factors-holistically.

Since the wrong diet is only one of these acne-triggering factors, in most cases no special diet can cure acne.

There is a however, a tight connection between diet and acne formation. Dietary factors can trigger and aggravate your existing acne. Avoiding the wrong foods such as milk, sugar and hydrogenated oils, and eating cleansing and hormonal balancing foods such as green leafy vegetables and essential fatty acids, can help your skin heal itself from the inside out and dramatically reduce your acne symptoms.

There are also several important dietary principals that you must understand and follow if you ever want to cure your acne for good.

Taking responsibility over your body and adhering to these dietary principals along with taking the necessary steps to tackle all acne contributing factors, holistically, will not only cure your acne permanently and give you the flawless acne free skin you deserve, following these principals will also significantly improve your overall health, mental well-being, look and feel.

How Old is Acupuncture? Challenging the Neolithic Origins Theory

Although westerners often think of this traditional Chinese treatment modality as a “new” form of alternative medicine, acupuncture is so ancient in China that its origins are unclear. According to Huangfu Mi (c. 215-282 AD), author of The Systematic Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, needling therapy was first used during China’s Bronze Age, over five thousand years ago. He attributes its invention to either Fu Xi or Huang Di (the Yellow Emperor), two legendary figures of the Five Emperors Period (c. 3000-2070 BC). Modern scholars generally believe that acupuncture is much older, originating more than ten thousand years ago during China’s Neolithic Age (c. 8000-3500 BC).

In actuality, acupuncture may not be as ancient as has generally been assumed. A reconsideration of all extant documents and recent archaeological finds indicates that acupuncture may date back a mere 2100 to 2300 years, first appearing during China’s Warring States Period (475-221 BC) and rapidly maturing during the Western Han Dynasty (206 BC-24 AD).

Questioning the generally accepted origins theory.

The currently accepted theory concerning the Neolithic origins of acupuncture is based on two premises. The first holds that bian shi, specialized sharp-edged stone tools that appeared during China’s Neolithic Age, were used for an early form of needling therapy, prior to the invention of metal smelting. It is known that bian shi stone tools were utilized for a number of early medical procedures, starting during the Neolithic Age and continuing through the Western Han Dynasty (206 BC-24 AD). A number of descriptions of bian shi stone therapy appear in one of China’s earliest medical works, The Yellow Emperor’s Inner Classic of Medicine (Huang Di Neijing, hereafter referred to as the Neijing) (c. 104-32 BC). It has been thought that these Neolithic stone medical instruments were precursors of the metal acupuncture needles that came into use during China’s Iron Age.

However, historical documents and new archaeological evidence clearly indicate that bian shi stone tools were flat and knife-like in form, used primarily to incise abscesses to discharge pus, or to draw blood (1). They were applied as surgical scalpels to cut, rather than as needles to puncture, and had nothing to do with needling therapy. According to the Code of Hammurabi, the ancient inhabitants of Mesopotamia used similarly shaped bronze knives to incise abscesses over 4000 years ago.

Prehistoric Chinese people possessed needles made of various materials, ranging from crude thorns and quills to bone, bamboo, pottery, and stone. But just as the history of the knife is not the history of surgery, so the invention of needles and that of acupuncture are two entirely different things. Needles have historically been among the most commonly used tools of daily life for constructing garments all over the world. Medically, needles are used to suture incisions just as making up clothes with darners, hollow syringe needles (as differentiated from a solid needle used in acupuncture) are applied to inject fluids into the body or draw them from it, but pricking a solid needle into the body to treat illness seems very strange and enigmatical. In English, “to give somebody the needle” means to displease or irritate someone. Most people prefer not to be punctured with needles, and associate needling with pain and injury. Many plants and animals have evolved thorns or quills as powerful weapons for protection or attack. Needles were even used for punishment in ancient China. By trial and error, healers throughout the world have found treatments for pain and other diseases independently, for instances, herbs, roots, wraps, rubs, blood-letting and surgery, but acupuncture alone is unique to Chinese. Considering the unique Chinese origin of acupuncture, it is reasonable to assume that the invention of acupuncture was not related to the availability of either sewing needles or bian shi stone scalpels during China’s Neolithic Age.

The second premise supporting the theory of the Neolithic origins of acupuncture holds that acupuncture evolved as a natural outgrowth of daily life in prehistoric times. It is thought that through a process of fortuitous accident and repeated empirical experience, it was discovered that needling various points on the body could effectively treat various conditions. However, this assumption is lacking in both basic historical evidence and a logical foundation.

It is known that ancient people were aware of situations in which physical problems were relieved following unrelated injury. Such a case was reported by Zhang Zihe (c. 1156-1228 AD), one of the four eminent physicians of the Jin and Yuan Dynasties (1115-1368 AD) and a specialist in blood-letting therapy: “Bachelor Zhao Zhongwen developed an acute eye problem during his participation in the imperial examination. His eyes became red and swollen, accompanied by blurred vision and severe pain. The pain was so unbearable that he contemplated death. One day, Zhao was in teahouse with a friend. Suddenly, a stovepipe fell and hit him on the forehead, causing a wound about 3-4 cun in length and letting copious amounts of dark purple blood. When the bleeding stopped, a miracle had occurred. Zhao’s eyes stopped hurting; he could see the road and was able to go home by himself. The next day he could make out the ridge of his roof. Within several days, he was completely recovered. This case was cured with no intentional treatment but only accidental trauma (2).”

If acupuncture did, in fact, gradually develop as the result of such fortuitous accidents, China’s four thousand years of recorded history should include numerous similar accounts concerning the discovery of the acupoints and their properties. But my extensive search of the immense Chinese medical canon and other literature has yielded only this single case. Actually, this story offers at most an example of blood-letting therapy, which differs in some essential regards from acupuncture. The point of blood-letting therapy is to remove a certain amount of blood. But when puncturing the body with solid needles, nothing is added to or subtracted from the body.

Blood-letting therapy is universal. Throughout recorded history, people around the world have had similar experiences with the beneficial results of accidental injury, and have developed healing methods based on the principle that injuring and inducing bleeding in one part of the body can relieve problems in another area. The ancient Greeks and Romans developed venesection and cupping based on the discovery that bleeding is beneficial in cases such as fever, headache, and disordered menstruation. Europeans during the Middle Ages used blood-letting as a panacea for the prevention and treatment of disease. Detailed directions were given concerning the most favorable days and hours for blood-letting, the correct veins to be tapped, the amount of blood to be taken, and the number of bleedings. Blood was usually taken by opening a vein with a lancet, but sometimes by blood-sucking leeches or with the use of cupping vessels. Blood-letting using leeches is still practiced in some areas of Europe and the Middle East. However, nowhere did these blood-letting methods develop into a detailed and comprehensive system comparable to that of acupuncture. If acupuncture did indeed arise from repeated empirical experience of accidental injury, it should have developed all over the world, rather than just in China.

Both historical evidence and logic indicate that there is no causal relation between the development of materials and techniques for making needles and the invention of acupuncture. It is also clear that repeated experience of fortuitous accidental injury was not a primary factor in the development of acupuncture. Therefore, the generally accepted theory concerning the Neolithic origins of acupuncture, based as it is upon such faulty premises, must be incorrect. It is now necessary to reconsider when acupuncture did, in fact, first appear and subsequently mature.

Reconsidering the evidence

If acupuncture did indeed originate during China’s Neolithic Age, references to it should appear throughout China’s earliest written records and archaeological relics. However, this is not the case.

Early cultures believed the world to be filled with the supernatural, and developed various methods of divination. During China’s Shang Dynasty (c. 1500-1000 BC), divination was practiced by burning animal bones and tortoise shells with moxa or other materials. Oracular pronouncements were then inscribed on the bone or shell, based on the resulting crackles. These inscriptions have survived as the earliest examples of written Chinese characters. Among the hundreds of thousands of inscribed oracle bones and shells found to date, 323 contain predictions concerning over twenty different diseases and disorders. However, none of these inscriptions mention acupuncture, or any other form of treatment for that matter.

Rites of the Zhou Dynasty (Zhou Li), written during the Warring States Period (475-221 BC), records in detail the official rituals and regulations of the Zhou Dynasty (c. 1000-256 BC), including those concerning medicine. Royal doctors at that time were divided into four categories: dieticians, who were responsible for the rulers’ food and drink; doctors of internal medicine, who treated diseases and disorders with grains and herbs; surgeons, or yang yi, who treated problems such as abscesses, open sores, wounds, and fractures using zhuyou (incantation), medication, and debridement (using stone or metal knives to scrape and remove pus and necrotic tissue); and veterinarians, who treated animals. But this document as well contains no references to acupuncture.

Neijing (c. 104-32 BC) is the first known work concerning acupuncture. The classic consists of two parts: Suwen – Simple Questions, and Lingshu – the Spiritual Pivot, also known as The Classic of Acupuncture (Zhen Jing). Both are concerned primarily with the theory and practice of acupuncture and moxibustion. Although authorship of the Neijing is attributed to Huang Di, the legendary Yellow Emperor (c. 2650 BC), most scholars consider that this master work, which contains excerpts from more than twenty pre-existing medical treatises, was actually compiled between 104 BC and 32 BC, during the latter part of the Western Han dynasty (206 BC-24 AD). The comprehensive and highly developed nature of the medical system presented in the Neijing has led scholars to believe that needling therapy has an extremely long history, probably reaching back to prehistoric times. The original versions of the ancient texts used in the compilation of the Neijing have been lost, and with them the opportunity to further illuminate the question of when acupuncture actually first appeared. However, startling new archaeological evidence, unearthed in China in the early 1970s and 1980s, reveals the true state of Chinese medicine prior to the Neijing, and challenges existing assumptions concerning the Neolithic origins of acupuncture.

In late 1973, fourteen medical documents, known as the Ancient Medical Relics of Mawangdui, were excavated from Grave No. 3 at Mawangdui, Changsha, Hunan Province. Ten of the documents were hand-copied on silk, and four were written on bamboo slips. The exact age of the Ancient Medical Relics of Mawangdui has not been determined. However, a wooden tablet found in the grave states that the deceased was the son of Prime Minister Li Chang of the state of Changsha, and that he was buried on February 24, 168 BC. The unsystematic and empirical nature of the material contained in the documents indicates that they were written well before their interment in 168 BC, probably around the middle of the Warring States Period (475-221 BC). In any event, it is certain that these medical documents pre-date the Neijing (compiled c. 104-32 BC), making them the oldest known medical documents in existence. These documents were probably lost sometime during the Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220 AD), since no mention of them has been found from this time until their rediscovery in 1973.

Another valuable medical find, The Book of the Meridians (Mai Shu), was excavated from two ancient tombs at Zhangjiashan in Jiangling County, Hubei Province in 1983. These ancient texts, written on bamboo slips and quite well preserved, were probably buried between 187 and 179 BC, around the same time as the Mawangdui relics. There are five documents in all, three of which (The Classic of Moxibustion with Eleven Yin-Yang Meridians, Methods of Pulse Examination and Bian Stone, and Indications of Death on the Yin-Yang Meridians) are identical to the texts found at Mawangdui.

There is abundant evidence to show that the authors of the Neijing used the earlier medical texts from Mawangdui and Zhangjiashan as primary references, further indicating the antiquity of these relics. For example, Chapter 10 of the Lingshu section of the Neijing contains a discussion of the meridians and their disorders that is very similar, in both form and content, to that found in the Classic of Moxibustion with Eleven Yin-Yang Meridians, one of the documents found at both Mawangdui and Zhangjiashan.

Of course, the Neijing did not simply reproduce these earlier documents, but rather refined and developed them, and introduced new therapeutic methods. The earlier Classic of Moxibustion with Eleven Yin-Yang Meridians is limited to moxibustion, while Chapter 10 of the Lingshu section of the Neijing mentions needling therapy, or acupuncture, for the first time. Although the medical texts preceding the Neijing discuss a wide variety of healing techniques, including herbal medicine, moxibustion, fomentation, medicinal bathing, bian stone therapy, massage, daoyin (physical exercises), xingqi (breathing exercises), zhuyou (incantation), and even surgery, these earlier documents contain no mention of acupuncture.

If needling therapy did indeed originate much earlier than the Neijing (c. 104-32 BC), the medical documents unearthed from Mawangdui and Zhangjiashan, very probably used as primary references by the Neijing’s authors, should also contain extensive discussions of acupuncture. However, they do not. This clearly indicates that acupuncture was not yet in use at the time that the Mawangdui and Zhangjiashan documents were compiled. Of course, it is not possible to draw a detailed picture of the state of acupuncture early in the Western Han Dynasty (206 BC-24 AD) based solely on the medical relics from Mawangdui and Zhangjiashan. But the fact that these documents were considered valuable enough to be buried with the deceased indicates that they do reflect general medical practice at the time.

The Historical Records (Shi Ji) (c. 104-91 BC) by Sima Qian contains evidence that acupuncture was first used approximately one hundred years prior to the compilation of the Neijing (c. 104-32 BC). The Historical Records, China’s first comprehensive history, consists of a series of biographies reaching from the time of the legendary Yellow Emperor (c. 2650 BC) to Emperor Wudi (156-87 BC) of the Western Han Dynasty. Among these are biographies of China’s two earliest medical practitioners, Bian Que and Cang Gong. Bian Que’s given name was Qin Yueren. It is known that he lived from 407-310 BC, during the late Warring States Period (475-221 BC), and was a contemporary of Hippocrates (c. 460-377 BC), the father of Western medicine. Bian Que’s life was surrounded by an aura of mystery which makes it difficult to separate fact from legend. His name means Wayfaring Magpie – a bird which symbolizes good fortune. It is said that an old man gave Bian Que a number of esoteric medical texts and an herbal prescription, and then disappeared. Bian Que took the medicine according to the mysterious visitor’s instructions. Thirty days later, he could see through walls. Thereafter, whenever he diagnosed disease, he could clearly see the internal organs of his patients’ bodies. Like the centaur Chiron, son of Apollo, who is sometimes regarded as the god of surgery in the West, Bian Que is considered to be a supernatural figure, and the god of healing. A stone relief, unearthed from a tomb dating back to the Han Dynasty (206 BC-220 AD), depicts him with a human head on a bird’s body (3). The Historical Records states that Bian Que successfully resuscitated the prince of the State of Guo using a combination of acupuncture, fomentation, and herbal medicine. Bian Que is thus considered to be the founder of acupuncture, and to have made the first recorded use of acupuncture during the Warring States Period (475-221 BC).

More solid evidence connects the birth of acupuncture with the famous ancient physician Chunyu Yi (c. 215-140 BC), popularly known as Cang Gong. Cang Gong’s life and work are described in detail in the Historical Records. The Historical Records state that in 180 BC, Cang Gong’s teacher gave him a number of precious medical texts that had escaped the book-burnings of the last days of the Great Qin Empire (221-207 BC). At that time, adherents of all opposing schools of thought were executed or exiled, and almost all books not conforming to the rigid Legalist doctrines that dominated the Qin Dynasty were burned. Although medical texts escaped the disaster, their owners still feared persecution. The banned books that Cang Gong received might have included a number whose titles appear in the Ancient Medical Relics of Mawangdui, such as the Classic of Moxibustion with Eleven Yin-Yang Meridians, Classic of Moxibustion with Eleven Foot-Arm Meridians, Method of Pulse Examination and Bian Stone, Therapeutic Methods for 52 Diseases, Miscellaneous Forbidden Methods, and The Book of Sex.

Cang Gong’s biography in the Historical Records discusses twenty-five of his cases, dating from approximately 186 BC to 154 BC. These cases studies, the earliest in recorded Chinese history, give a clear picture of how disease was treated over 2100 years ago. Of the twenty-five cases, ten were diagnosed as incurable and the patients died as predicted. Of the fifteen that were cured, eleven were treated with herbal medicine, two with moxibustion in combination with herbal medicine, one with needling, and one with needling in combination with pouring cold water on the patient’s head. It can be seen from this material that Cang Gong used herbal medicine as his primary treatment, and acupuncture and moxibustion only secondarily. His use of moxibustion adheres strictly to the doctrines recorded in the medial relics from Mawangdui and Zhangjiashan. Although only two of Cang Gong’s moxibustion cases are recorded in the Historical Records, it is known that he was expert in its use, and that he wrote a book called Cang Gong’s Moxibustion. Unfortunately, this book has been lost. In comparison with his wide-ranging utilization of herbal medicine and moxibustion, Cang Gong applied needling therapy very sparingly. Neither of Cang Gong’s two recorded acupuncture cases mentions specific acupoints or how the needles were manipulated, indicating that needling therapy at the time was still in its initial stage.

Although acupuncture was not in common use during Cang Gong’s day, his two recorded acupuncture patients were cured with only one treatment, indicating the efficacy of the nascent therapy. The rapid development of acupuncture was soon to follow. By the time the Neijing was compiled (c. 104-32 BC), approximately one hundred years after the time of Cang Gong, acupuncture had supplanted herbs and moxibustion as the treatment of choice. Only thirteen herbal prescriptions are recorded in the Neijing, compared with hundreds utilizing acupuncture.

Archaeological excavations of Western Han Dynasty (206 BC-24 AD) tombs have yielded a number of important medical relics related to acupuncture, in addition to the Neijing and Historical Records. In July of 1968, nine metal needles were excavated at Mancheng, Hebei Province from the tomb of Prince Liu Sheng (?-113 BC) of Zhongshan, elder brother of Emperor Wu Di (156-87 BC) of the Western Han Dynasty (206 BC-24 AD). Four of the needles are gold and quite well preserved, while five are silver and decayed to the extent that it was not possible to restore them completely. The number and shapes of the excavated needles indicate that they may have been an exhibit of the nine types of acupuncture needles described in the Neijing. This possibility is supported by the fact that a number of additional medical instruments were found in the tomb. These included a bronze yigong (practitioner’s basin) used for decocting medicinal herbs or making pills, a bronze sieve used to filter herbal decoctions, and a silver utensil used to pour medicine (4). Although many prehistoric bone needles have been unearthed, the fact that they have eyes indicates that they were used for sewing. Some scholars have inferred that prehistoric Chinese people may have used bone needles found with no eyes or with points on both ends for medical purposes. However, I believe that it is rash to draw such a conclusion based solely on relics that have lain buried for thousands of years. Rather, it is likely that the eyes of these needles have simply decayed over the millennia.

Aerobic Cardio Exercises – Why Bother?

Aerobic exercises are some of the best ways to really build up one the strength of one’s heart and lungs. However, some people just aren’t convinced to sign up and get swinging to the beat.

That said, aerobics actually offers a lot of unique ways to build up cardiovascular resiliency, as well as a few extra perks that will help you out in the long run:

Evenly spread the muscle strain

One of first and foremost benefits of aerobics is the even spread of muscle strain throughout the body.

Jogging puts an incredible amount of strain on the feet and legs, and the jolts on the bones don’t help either. This strain will eventually wear out the joints and ligaments of the body, causing complications for people – especially those with heavy builds. Aerobics involves moving everything in the body, from the arms to the hips to the legs to the toes. This then spreads the strain evenly across the body, without the sharp increases of pressure like that of jogging or jumping rope.

Shape and tone your muscles

Another added benefit of aerobics is its innate ability to shape and tone muscles.

The smooth, repetitive actions make the muscles across the body firm and toned, which gets the heart pumping without enlarging any one particular muscle group in the body. This allows you to develop your cardiovascular strength without having to worry about building too much muscle in one part of your body, as is the case with jogging and leg muscles.

Minimal space and extras needed

Most aerobics only need a mat or a ball, while some aerobic exercises need nothing at all.

The rhyme was just a coincidence, but the point is there. You do not need a lot of fancy gadgets or a wide, open space to properly do aerobics. A Home Gym or a couple of sessions in your local fitness center will be more than enough to effectively do aerobics. Besides, the only other cardio exercise that will tone the body’s muscles like aerobics does is swimming, but not everyone has access to a large pool to use at their leisure.

Can be done anywhere

Whether you prefer to exercise privately or are looking to join a group, aerobics has the answer to all your cardio needs.

This is one of the best appeals of aerobics. It is a very minimalist activity, requiring no more than a few square feet of space to maneuver in. The lack of any specialized gear also makes it an extremely affordable exercise. This combination of small space and zero equipment makes aerobics a very attractive choice for the frugal to strengthen their cardiovascular system.

And one last thing: aerobics is one of the best ways to start the day or wind down at night. Sweating it up has a revitalizing effect, which both energizes and relaxes the exerciser. It is definitely one of the more enjoyable and locomotive ways to make you a healthier person overall!